Making evaluating arguments fun for middle schoolers

Pedagogical highlight of the week:

Last week, we worked on analyzing and evaluating the effectiveness of written arguments.  We discussed what makes an argument strong (facts and evidence), and what weakens an argument (unsupported opinions).  The kids underlined and annotated multiple written arguments, identifying important elements like the author’s claim, thesis, reasons and evidence.  Eventually, my students will begin crafting written arguments of their own, so it’s critical that they be exposed to exemplars so that they have models to draw from when they begin writing.

While highly important, examining written arguments may not be considered the most engaging classwork to the average 13-year-old.  I’m a realist. I know that my students are not jumping out of bed and rushing to school with the hopes that I will have an essay for them to annotate. Most of my students are really into their independent reading books, and they are enjoying our class novel as well.  Argumentative writing is taking time away from both of those activities, which means it has the potential to be met with some resistance.

In an effort to spice things up a bit, I felt like I had to get away from just identifying the key components of an argumentative essay and having the students answer questions about the essays they were reading.  I wanted them to produce something to show me that they understood the validity of the argument.

So I had them create an advertising campaign for an essay that they read about the dangers of using a cell phone while driving.  Here’s how I mapped it out:

  1. They read the essay on their own and underlined the author’s claim and any supporting evidence.
  2. In groups of three, students compared their findings and decided which evidence was the strongest.
  3. We reconvened as a class and discussed the claim of the essay and any relevant evidence or statistics that the author used to strengthen her position.
  4. I showed my students the following anti-smoking advertisements.  We first identified each ad’s claim and the facts that were included as well.  I also asked the kids to notice how the campaign had cleverly used images that were interwoven into the ad’s perspective and supporting evidence.


5. Students were challenged to create an advertisement against cell phone usage while driving, and they had to use information from the Hang Up and Drive essay to help them design their ad.

Here are a few of the more creative finished products:


Both of these students made the artful decision to put the text evidence inside the phone screen in their advertisement.  I told each student that I thought that their idea could easily be a real ad a magazine.

If time permits, I generally ask students what they think about lessons, especially when I try something new like this.  Overall, the feedback was pretty positive on this one. Most of the students enjoyed the opportunity to produce something other than a standard written response.  I really value the feedback that I get from these quick conversations, and I would definitely encourage teachers to solicit comments from students regarding instruction whenever possible.

This week, my classes will be co-constructing argumentative essays using evidence from an NPR article on school start times.  This will be the first time that I’ve constructed an essay with the entire class, and I’m very curious to see how it plays out.  I’ll have to report back next Sunday with a full analysis of the pros and cons of co-constructing an argumentative essay with 20-something 7th graders at the same time.  What could possibly go wrong, right?

Heart-warming moment of the week:

I have three boys in my 2nd period that have formed a quasi-book club that kind of organically arose from our independent reading time.  First, they all read Long Way Down by Jason Reynolds.  Then they read Solo by Kwame Alexander.  When I took their class to the library this week, I overheard the three of them deciding upon the next book that they would read.  They wanted another book written in poetic form.  They also needed a title with three available copies in the library.  They settled on Nikki Grimes’s Planet Middle School, the coming-of-age story of self-proclaimed tomboy Joylin Johnson and her journey into adolescence and eventually her first crush.  I cannot wait to hear their in-class discussions on this book, and I LOVE that they are reading a book told from the perspective of a female protagonist, since so much of what they have been reading has been told from a male’s point of view.



Graphic novels as a gateway to literacy for struggling readers

My principal has fully-supported the choice reading time that I give my students at the beginning of class each day.  In fact, she’s supported it so much that’s she’s asked the 6th and 8th grade English Language Arts (ELA) teachers to begin implementing a similar approach to their classrooms as well.  This week, an 8th grade ELA teacher found me at buses after school after her first day of trying this new strategy; in short, she was frustrated.  She relayed that only half the kids read, and she spent the majority of the 10 minutes fighting the other half to read something.  Apparently, if students weren’t interested in a book in her classroom library, they could read a NewsELA article.  Now, I’m a HUGE NewsELA fan.  I regularly use it in my classroom when I want to level the informational texts that we read.  But I’d never force it upon students during independent reading time. Maybe a few would be interested, but I’m guessing not many.

I then suggested that she could offer graphic novels to the reluctant readers.  She looked surprised and stated that she didn’t want her students reading graphic novels because they “weren’t real books”. Yes, she said this.  I briefly tried to explain to her that they could be a good option for a struggling reader, but she disagreed.  Although I wanted to continue this conversation with her, I had to run to get to a meeting that was a 20-minute drive away, so this blog post will have to suffice.

If I didn’t have the meeting, I would have argued vehemently that graphic novels are most certainly books, as much as any other books are books.  My room is filled with graphic novels like American Born Chinese, Awkward, Drama, Sisters, Smile, Persepolis, March, Cardboard, Roller Girl, Yummy: The Last Days of a Southside Shorty, and I Am Alfonso Jones.  These books examine a host of universal themes: friendship, family, acceptance, equity, determination and persistence.  They contain complex characters that develop and grow throughout the story.  They offer unique perspectives that encourage students to explore varying viewpoints that promote empathy, kindness and relationships.  Graphic novels expose students to story arcs: rising action, climax, conflicts, resolutions.

In addition, graphic novels give struggling readers the boost they need to begin to see themselves as readers.  I’ve had countless struggling readers complete a graphic novel in my class and beam as they tell me it’s the first time they’ve read a book from cover to cover.  That is HUGE. Reading feels far less daunting to a kid when they gain the confidence that comes from knowing they can read a book in its entirety.  I have an English Learner in one of my classes that seems determined to read all 26 volumes of the Dragon Ball Z box set, and I’m all for it.  Those books contain thousands of words.  Why wouldn’t I want him to devour them?

Teachers are always going to have a handful of students that enter their classrooms at the start of the year with an indifference to reading.  It may not be many kids, but inevitably, there will be a few.  I try to get a graphic novel into the hands of these students as soon as possible. Once they complete a graphic novel something inside them clicks.  It almost never fails. Then they read another graphic novel.  And then another.  Guess what eventually happens?  These same students start choosing chapter books that they never would have dreamed of attempting to read when we first met in August.  This happens EVERY SINGLE YEAR.  The graphic novels are a gateway to literacy for students who haven’t had a positive relationship with reading in the past.  They offer these kids an opportunity to realize that they are in fact capable of engaging with a book on a deeper level on their own.

I’m constantly adding to my classroom library. Like many teachers, I probably spend too much money on books. But also like many teachers, I will continue to buy more engaging texts that I think will captivate my students, and I will most certainly continue purchasing graphic novels.